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  摘要:时间还有十几天,英语主要提分项重点是作文,今天帮帮给大家整理了现阶段小作文的备考事项及要点,希望大家可以在小作文上也多拿几分。

  ►小作文写作要点

  先来说说写作要点。文章是否包含题目中的所有要点也是小作文的重要评分标准之一。首先,数应达到100词左右;其次,小作文题目中提到的要点(一般为三点)应该在文中全部提。所以,审题要仔细,不能遗漏问题中的要点。根据这一要求,小作文一般写3-4段。仍然小作文真题为例说明这一点。

  Directions:

  Two months ago you got a job as an editor for the magazine Designs & Fashions. But now you find that the work is not what you expected. You decide to quit. Write a letter to your boss, Mr. Wang, telling him your decision, stating your reason(s), and making an apology.

  Write your letter with no less than 100 words. Write it neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter; use “Li Ming” instead. You do not need to write the address. (10 points)

  题目中的指令是Write a letter to your boss, Mr. Wang, telling him your decision, stating your reason(s), and making an apology,很明显作文应包括三个要点:告诉老板自己的辞职决定,陈述辞职的原因并表示歉意。范文包含了上述三个要点:第一段告诉老板自己的辞职决定,第二段给出了辞职的三个原因,而末段表示了歉意。

  Dear Mr. Wang,

  I am writing to inform you about my decision to resign from my current position. There are a few factors involved that I find intolerable.

  First of all, the salary has proven to be much lower than you originally promised, and I have a large family to support. In addition, the office is located in the downtown area, yet I live in the suburbs, so it is exhausting for me to spend over three hours commuting every day. Most importantly, I feel rather disappointed and left out on the job itself, as in the past two months I was never given any really important responsibility.

  I sincerely hope that you approve of my resignation. I am sorry for any inconvenience caused.

                                                                                                    Yours sincerely,

                                                                                                         Li Ming

  综上所述,可以用3-4个段落对应题目中的几个要点,一般是一个段落写一个要点。在阐述要点时,各个段落分工如下:

  第一段:交代写信的目的;

  第二段:从两三个方谈论信的主体内容,各个方面之间以关联词相呼应,给人层次分明的感觉,像范文第二段中的关联词first of all, in addition, most importantly就使得第二段充分而连贯;

  第三段:阐述第三个要点,如果有的话;

  最后一段:从交际的角度来完成此信,如获得恩惠后表示感激、造成麻烦时表示歉意等。

 

       ►小作文语言问题详解

  小作文的格式很重要,小作文的语言也很重要。除了一般作文的要求,如没有语法错误、用词丰富、句子结构有变化以外,小作文还有特殊的要求,如文体方与交际方面的要求。下面以一篇范文为例剖析这几点。

  Dear Mr. Wang,

  I am writing to inform you about my decision to resign from my current position. There are a few factors involved that I find intolerable.

  First of all, the salary has proven to be much lower than you originally promised, and I have a large family to support. In addition, the office is located in the downtown area, yet I live in the suburbs, so it is exhausting for me to spend over three hours commuting every day. Most importantly, I feel rather disappointed and left out on the job itself, as in the past two months I was never given any really important responsibility.

  I sincerely hope that you approve of my resignation. I am sorry for any inconvenience caused.

                                                                                                  Yours sincerely,

                                                                                                  Li Ming

  一、遣词造句

  首先,本文用词准。例如,current position中的current,(spend over three hours) commuting中的commuting,(any really important) responsibility中的responsibility。其次,句型多变。有并列句,如第二段首句。还有较多的复合句,包含主句与从句,如第二段的第二句与第三句。当然,衔接手段也很丰富,具体内容会在明天的总结中谈到。

  二、文体规范

  所谓文体,就是考研大纲中所说的语域问题。小作文主要考查两类文体,即式文体与非正式文体。写给团体或机构的书信一般使用正式语言,即不用缩略语和口语用法。非正式文体主要涉写给朋友的书信,可以使用缩略语和口语用法。上面的信是写给团体负责人的,所以用语正式。

  三、交际原则

  所谓交际原则,就是要针对不同场合使用不同语言,使交流得以进行。落实到小作文的书信,就是要恰当地使用礼貌语言。上面文中的末句就体现了这一原则。不同的应用文有不同的用语,考生应该加以熟悉和背诵,使考试时能运用自如。针对不同应用文的具体套话。

  核心提示:在两篇作文中,小作文,就是应用文满分为10分,得高分比大作文容易一些,因为它更加套路化,对语言的要求也不如大作文那么高。综上所述,注意格式是小作文得高分的第一步。

  作文与阅读一样极为重要。在两篇作文中,小作文,就是应用文满分为10分,得高分比大作文容易一些,因为更加套路化,对语言的要求也不如大作文那么高。可是考生的实际得分却不是很理想。出现这种问题的主要原因在于写作的格式、语言和要点等方注意不够。

 

      ►下面介绍的是小作文的格式问题。
  

       Directions:

  Two months ago you got a job as an editor for the magazine Designs & Fashions. But now you find that the work is not what you expected. You decide to quit. Write a letter to your boss, Mr. Wang, telling him your decision, stating your reason(s), and making an apology.

  Write your letter with no less than 100 words. Write it neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter; use “Li Ming” instead. You do not need to write the address. (10 points)

  Dear Mr. Wang,

  I am writing to inform you about my decision to resign from my current position. There are a few factors involved that I find intolerable.

  First of all, the salary has proven to be much lower than you originally promised, and I have a large family to support. In addition, the office is located in the downtown area, yet I live in the suburbs, so it is exhausting for me to spend over three hours commuting every day. Most importantly, I feel rather disappointed and left out on the job itself, as in the past two months I was never given any really important responsibility.

  I sincerely hope that you approve of my resignation. I am sorry for any inconvenience caused.

                                                                                                        Yours sincerely,

                                                                                                         Li Ming

  由上面小作文考题以范文可以了解小作文格式主要涉及称呼、正文与落款。

  一、格式

  1. 称呼

  指写信人对收信人的称谓敬语。一般,称呼要顶格写,称呼之后要加逗号。英语应用文称呼具有以下的特点:

  (1)如果是不认识的人,一般称呼为敬词+尊称。例如,Dear Sir or Madam 或者 To Whom It May Concern (需注意每个单词首字母都大写);

  (2)如果是写给关系正式的某团体、组织或个人,称呼为敬词+尊称+名。例如,Dear Mr. Xx,或Dear Ms. Xx,;

  (3)对于关系较亲密的人可以直呼其名,即 Dear Xx,。

  2. 正文

  正文是书信中最重要的内容,也是应用文的得分关键。正文一般有两种格式:一是缩进式,即首段开头空四个字母,段落之间不空行; 另一种是齐头式,即每段开头不空格,但是各段之间空一行。建议考生采用缩进式,因为如果用齐头式,段间空行的话很可能答题空间不够,导致字数不够。

  3. 落款

  落款包括结束语和署名两个部分。落款要注意留出两行。一行是靠后写类似汉语"此致敬礼"的话也就是"Sincerely yours, "或者"Yours sincerely ,"一定要注意这个地方的结尾是有逗号的,如果丢掉了逗号,则会扣掉一分,请大家一定要注意。同时,还需要注意落款,落款部分不能写自己的名字。按照directions 中的要求使用名字。英语一的署名一般为Li Ming,英语二的署名一般为Zhang Wei。同时请大家注意名字后面一定不要加任何的符号。很多的考生喜欢在此打点号,请大家一定要注意,这里会被扣掉一分。

  特别提示:一般情况下,考研书信类应用文不要求写日期。

  二、语言

  首先,写作时要用词准确;其次,句式多样性,例如,既有并列句,也有复合句,还有从句,但注意语法运用要正确。此外还要注意,正式语言一般是写给具有正式关系的团体或机构,这种情况不用缩略语和口语用法。一般小作文的考查要求中会体现出写信的目的和场合,所以考生在写作时要注意针对不同场合使用不同语言,使交流得以进行。另外,考生也要注意不同的应用文有不同的用语。建议考生对某些应用文的格式和习惯用语,应该加以熟悉和背诵,以便运用自如。

  小作文如何做到语言准确?

  1、谓语动词的单复数问题

  I am a student who are willing to engage in the course of building an eco-friendly city. 这个句子是一位同学在练习小作文写作时写的,问题出在了定语从句的谓语动词are上。这里的先行词是student,是一个第三人称单数,所以谓语动词要用单数is。这类错误是同学们经常犯的,尤其是在各种从句和并列结构出现的时候,很多同学就回忘了前面真正的主语是谁,以至于开始凭着感觉随便写了一个出来,再比如下面这个句子:Now fruits and vegetables can be seen everywhere when it is in season. 这里由于主语fruits and vegetables离从句位置较远,所以,在写作的过程中,同学们有可能忘了前面的主语是谁,从而出现谓语动词使用错乱的情况。

  2、名词的单复数问题

  I hope that you will find these advices practical. 这个句子也是一位同学写的,问题出在了advice是个不可数名词,不会出现advices这种形式的。当然对应的就回出现some suggestion这种该加复数反而没加的情况。除此之外,还有audience这种单复同形的名词,和evidence和knowledge这些不可数名词,在平时练习写作的过程中一定要培养词汇的敏感度,在写的时候就会下意识地注意到这些问题。

  3、修饰语是否放在正确的位置上

  Without television, people can't get information which comes from other parts of the world immediately. 在这个句子中,immediately 显然放错了位置。是“得到迅速从各地传来的消息”,还是“迅速得到从各地传来的消息”?这里语义含混不清,应该改为: Without television, people can't get information immediately which comes from other parts of the world.

  三、其他

  在考试时,考生尤其需要注意的是,不要一看到题目要求后就忙于动笔,虽说小作文的字数在一百词左右,但是依旧要在脑子里理清思路。最好能够在仔细审题以后,认真列个提纲,这样更有利于思路清晰。同时,写作时,注意表达清楚以下几个方面:

  首先交代清楚写信目的;其次为了让阅卷者对你的文章结构及表意一目了然,注意关联词或衔接词的运用;接下来,应该对个人的观点进行阐述。最后,行文间要注意简化描述,用简短的语句代替冗长的语句。在作文完成的时候,应该检查、修改,以免遗漏一些需要表达清楚的要点和细节。

    ►友情链接: 考研英语:十大模板助你小作文稳上分!

  (实习小编:咕咚 )

 

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